The Italian pilot in Sicily will explore the role of aggregating information from different Open Data sources in order to support ARPA institutional mission of providing up to date monitoring of water quality in Sicily. Some of the main issues to address are (i) Overcoming the barriers (cultural, political, administrative) to opening up the data; (ii) Identifying the optimal role of the general public in crowdsourcing environmental information; (iii) Identifying the technical means of publication; (iv) Overcoming incompatibilities of datasets in terms of technical standards (eg JSON vs XML), semantic structuring, etc.; (v) Optimum ways of aggregation, analysis, and visualisation to support decision-making for the different stakeholders including the general public.
The three main stakeholder groups involved are: (i) Different offices within A.R.P.A. Sicilia itself, in particular the link between the central office in Palermo and the local offices distributed throughout the region; (ii) Key external stakeholders with a role in environmental monitoring, including The ASL (local health care divisions), Ex-ATO (water supply at sub-regional level) and City administrations; (iii) The general public providing information through eg Geoblogging The pilot activities will be articulated in three specific sites that represent typical situations, for example:
- Coastal area: issues of pollution from wastewater, formation of dangerous algae.
- Riverbed: wastewater pollution, groundwater spill off from agricultural chemicals.
- An urban water system: water supply, water treatment, drainage sewers, etc.
The pilot methodology will be based on a Living Lab approach engaging the key stakeholders in the co-design of the optimal solution. Elements can be integrated from the CIP Smart City Citadel project, such as the local Open Data Governance Group and the use of an Open Data Commons of re-useable tools and APIs. SpazioDati will deploy a white-labeled version of its datamarket and customise it to implement the features needed by the pilot, to host and distribute all project data. This includes designing and implementing dataset-specific API that hide the details of general-purpose query languages and APIs (such as SPARQL and JSON-LD) to maximise ease of use for developers. Additionally the market will allow non-developers to easily generate data visuali sations, which can be reused in reports and presentations.
The datasets that A.R.P.A. Sicilia can provide include:
1. Presence of toxic algae (Ostreopsis spp.)
2. Presence pollutants from sewage in coastal waters
3. Presence pollutants from exhaust (rivers, lakes and transitional waters)
4. Presence of residual agricultural chemicals
5. Groundwater monitoring
6. Wastewater treatment (sewage treatment plants, wetlands, etc.). and others.
The format of the dataset is often not open and the number of monitoring stations is variable for each dataset, however, they are formed, at least, for hundreds of points. The main parameters measured are: - Temperature, pH, salinity, dissolved oxygen; - Unit cell of O. ovata, Coolia monotis, Prorocentrum lima, Amphidinium spp. - chlorophyll, turbidity and nutrients (nitrogen ammonia (NH4), A.Nitrico (NO3), total phosphorus (Pt)); - Macrophytes, macroinvertebrates, diatoms; - Pollutants. The sampling is carried out in different periods and the measured parameters are processed by A.R.P.A. Sicilia in order to define the state of the quality of surface water and groundwater bodies, providing technical and scientific support for the protection, conservation and the achievement of environmental quality objectives. The excessive presence of toxic algae along the coasts cause significant effects on the benthic and, therefore, the integrity of the marine flora and fauna as well as human health.